Arithmetic is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, consisting of knowledge of numbers, especially knowledge of the theories of the mathematical processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and indexing and root determination of numbers. It is the branch of mathematics where computational calculations are performed directly through addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and other mathematical operations.
Arithmetic is a fundamental part of numerology, and in addition to algebra, geometry and analytical mathematics, numerology may consider one of the top branches of modern mathematics. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic may use as synonyms for numerology. So, Even to this day in some cases these two terms may use to refer to a wide range of numerology.
In arithmetic the word is used in the sense of number. Hence, The word arithmetic may recognize as the Bengali term for the English arithmetic. Thus, The word arithmetic comes from the ancient Greek words arithmos and téchne, meaning numbers, art, and works of art, respectively. So, Other important terms used in this article are:
- Mathematical operation or arithmetic operation or mathematical process
- Spatial arithmetic
- Local values
- Unique or indestructible unit
- Connected or broken unit
- Ongoing normalization method
- And performing arithmetic operations on different types of fractions
Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics. From ancient times the people have done various calculations in different ways. So, Arithmetic is one of those methods. Thus, Many ancient masters excelled in arithmetic. Hence, Among them Pythagoras, Galileo, Mahavira, Ramanujam are notable.
History of arithmetic in the Indian subcontinent
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The eminent mathematician of the Indian subcontinent was Yadav Chandra Chakraborty who was often referred to as Yadav Babu. The British government gave him the title of “Emperor of Mathematics”. In 1890 he published Arithmetic, one of the best books on mathematics. It may commonly know as “Yadav’s arithmetic”. It may translate into different languages and is accepted as a textbook in different countries.
The basic mathematical operations used in arithmetic include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. But also include higher mathematical processes such as percentages, square roots, and indexing, logarithmic functions. It also includes trigonometric functions similar to logarithms (prostapheresis).
To find the value of an arithmetic sum (eg: 4 + 6–1 ÷ 3 an arithmetic sum), it must determine according to the desired sequence of mathematical operations. There are several specific methods for determining the position of numbers and verbs (+, -, ×, ÷, etc.) in a number, each of which is widely used. These include infix notation, prefix notation or polish notation, postfix notation or reverse polish notation etc.
When writing numbers with infix notation, parentheses may use explicitly, and this method has to follow the rules of mathematical verbs, that is, follow the sequence of verbs. Basically, we have written the rules according to this rule. For example: 4 + 6 – 1: 3 may write through infix notation. On the other hand, in the case of prefix and postfix notation, they have their own sequence in performing the mathematical operations of numbers.
The set on which all the four arithmetic operations (except the division by zero) can apply. And, the set in which these operations follow the rules of distribution and other general rules may call field in mathematical terms.
The basic theorem of arithmetic
The basic theorem of arithmetic is a theorem where, an integer may represent as the product of prime numbers. According to this theorem, any integer greater than 1 can analyze as a fundamental product. And, only one (unique) prime product can analyze, if the order of the generators may ignore in the product analysis.